Islamic parties at that time like the newly formed Jamat-e-Islami first opposed the creation of Pakistan. After the creation of Pakistan these parties involved in the political process and their agenda has been to make Pakistan an Islamic state. They even called Jinnah "Kafir-e-Azam" due to his moderate views.
Secularism has been a taboo topic in Pakistan and many Pakistanis do not understand its meaning. Because of illiteracy and due to the misrepresentation of secularism by Islamic parties, an average Pakistani thinks of it as being a threat to Islam or being a "religionless" society. Ahmed (1997) however suggests that reduction of the debate about what sort of society Pakistan should be to one between secularism and a fundamentalist Islamic state actually overlooks Jinnah's legacy. To ask whether or not Jinnah was a secularist, he says, is too simplistic. The real issue, he suggests, is "what kind of Islam would Jinnah have wanted?." According to Ahmed, Jinnah's Islam was "compassionate and tolerant" rather than "literalistic, rigid" and "in conflict with other religions" 35.
On the one hand, Jinnah is often depicted as culturally Muslim but as otherwise non-practicing. It is said that he could not "say his prayers properly in Arabic" 36. He did not appear in public wearing Muslim dress until 1937 or speak Urdu, "the language he claimed would be the national language of the Muslims." All his political speeches were delivered in English 37. However, towards the end of his life, Jinnah made a "conscious attempt to move towards Islam in terms of text, purity and the scriptures" and away from "village Islam or modern Westernized Islam" 38. Like Muhammad Iqbal, he wanted to return to the sources of Islam and interpret them for the contemporary context, not to merely copy how others, in the past, in different circumstances, have understood or misunderstood Islam. In Ahmed's opinion, Jinnah, with Nehru and Gandhi, stood for harmony and co-existence, not confrontation 39. Jinnah was born into a family of Shi'a Khoja Muslims, although he may have converted to Sunni Islam towards the end of his life 40.
DeathThe funeral of Jinnah in 1948.
Through the 1940s, Jinnah suffered from tuberculosis-only his sister and a few others close to Jinnah were aware of his condition. In 1948, Jinnah's health began to falter, hindered further by the heavy workload that had fallen upon him following Pakistan's creation. Attempting to recuperate, he spent many months at his official retreat in Ziarat, but died on September 11, 1948 from a combination of tuberculosis and lung cancer. His funeral was followed by the construction of a massive mausoleum-Mazar-e-Quaid-in Karachi to honour him; official and military ceremonies are hosted there on special occasions.
On December 26, 2006, eight women officer cadets from the training academy for Pakistani army officers became the first women to mount honour guard at the mausoleum of Mohammed Ali Jinnah.
Dina Wadia remained in India after partition, before ultimately settling in New York City. Jinnah's grandson, Nusli Wadia, is a prominent industrialist residing in Mumbai. In the 1963-1964 elections, Jinnah's sister Fatima Jinnah, known as Madar-e-Millat ("Mother of the Nation"), became the presidential candidate of a coalition of political parties that opposed the rule of President Ayub Khan, but lost the election. The Jinnah House in Malabar Hill, Mumbai is in the possession of the Government of India-its future is officially disputed.41 Jinnah had personally requested Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to preserve the house-he hoped for good relations between India and Pakistan, and that one day he could return to Mumbai.42 There are proposals for the house be offered to the Government of Pakistan to establish a consulate in the city, as a goodwill gesture, but Dina Wadia's family have laid claim to the property.
Criticism and legacyMuhammad Ali Jinnah.
Some critics allege that Jinnah's courting the princes of Hindu states and his gambit with Junagadh is proof of ill intentions towards India, as he was the proponent of the theory that Hindus and Muslims could not live together, yet being interested in Hindu-majority states.43 In his book Patel: A Life, Rajmohan Gandhi asserts that Jinnah sought to engage the question of Junagadh with an eye on Kashmir-he wanted India to ask for a plebiscite in Junagadh, knowing thus that the principle then would have to be applied to Kashmir, where the Muslim-majority would, he believed, vote for Pakistan.44
Some historians like H. M. Seervai and Ayesha Jalal assert that Jinnah never wanted partition-it was the outcome of the Congress leaders being unwilling to share power with the Muslim League. It is asserted that Jinnah only used the Pakistan demand as a method to mobilize support to obtain significant political rights for Muslims. Jinnah has gained the admiration of major Indian nationalist politicians like Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Lal Krishna Advani-the latter's comments praising Jinnah caused an uproar in his own Bharatiya Janata Party.45
In Pakistan, Jinnah is honoured with the official title Quaid-e-Azam, and he is depicted on all Pakistani rupee notes of denominations ten and higher, and is the namesake of many Pakistani public institutions. The former Quaid-e-Azam International Airport, now called the Jinnah International Airport, in Karachi is Pakistan's busiest. One of the largest streets in the Turkish capital Ankara - Cinnah Caddesi -is named after him. In Iran, one of the capital Tehran's most important new highways is also named after him, while the government released a stamp commemorating the centennial of Jinnah's birthday. The Mazar-e-Quaid, Jinnah's mausoleum, is among Karachi's most imposing buildings. In media, Jinnah was portrayed by British actors Richard Lintern (as the young Jinnah) and Christopher Lee (as the elder Jinnah) in the 1998 film "Jinnah".46 In Richard Attenborough's film Gandhi,47 Jinnah was portrayed by theatre-personality Alyque Padamsee. In the 1986 televised mini-series Lord Mountbatten: the Last Viceroy, Jinnah was played by Polish actor Vladek Sheybal. Jinnah's modesty is evidenced by his refusing a doctorate degree from Aligarh Muslim University, commenting that he had always been known as "Mr. Jinnah" and hoped he would die as plain Mr. Jinnah" 48.
NotesJinnah House in Bombay, India.Mazar-e-Quaid- the mausoleum of Jinnah in Karachi
- ↑ Akbar S. Ahmed, Jinnah, Pakistan, and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin (New York: Routledge, 1997).
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 The Chronicle of Pakistan Compiled by Khurram Ali Shafique. "Early Days: Birth and Schooling". Government of Pakistan Official website. accessdate April 9, 2007
- ↑ "1947: December - Pakistan celebrates founder's birthday". Tripod.com "Pakistanspace" accessdate April 9, 2007
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 "Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)" Story of Pakistan Timeline: Personalities accessdate April 9, 2007
- ↑ Fatimah Jinnah. My Brother. (Karachi: Quaid-e-Azam Academy, 1987), 48-49
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 "The Lawyer: Bombay (1896-1910)". Government of Pakistan accessdate April 9, 2007
- ↑ David Hardiman. Peasant Nationalists of Gujarat. (Oxford University Press, 1988), 89
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 "The Statesman: Jinnah's differences with the Congress". Government of Pakistan. accessdate April 17, 2007
- ↑ Ayesha Jalal, The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 8
- ↑ "The Statesman: Quaid-i-Azam's Fourteen Points". Government of Pakistan. accessdate April 9, 2007
- ↑ "The Statesman: London 1931". Government of Pakistan accessdate April 9, 2007
- ↑ Jalal, 1994, 27
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Jalal, 1994, 14
- ↑ Rajmohan Gandhi. Patel: A Life. (Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1990), 262
- ↑ Gandhi, Patel: A Life, 289
- ↑ Ahmed, 78
- ↑ Gandhi, Patel: A Life, 292
- ↑ Muhammad Iqbal, "Presidential Address" "The Statesman: Allama Iqbal's Presidential Address at Allahabad 1930". Government of Pakistan. accessdate April 9, 2007
- ↑ Gandhi, Patel: A Life, 331
- ↑ Gandhi, Patel: A Life, 369
- ↑ Gandhi, Patel: A Life," 372-373
- ↑ Nicholas Mansergh, et al. "Transfer of Power Papers Volume IX," (London: H.M.S.O., 1982), 879
- ↑ Gandhi, Patel: A Life, 376-378
- ↑ "The Leader: The Plan of June 3, 1947: page 2".Government of Pakistan. accessdate April 16, 2007
- ↑ "1947: October - Jinnah visits Lahore". Tripod.com. "Pakistanspace" accessdate April 16, 2007
- ↑ Gandhi, Patel: A Life, 416
- ↑ Gandhi, Patel: A Life, 407-408
- ↑ "Secondary Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century". Users.Erols.com "Matthew White" accessdate April 16, 2007
- ↑ "The Partition of India".Department of English, Emory University. "Postcolonial Studies" project. accessdate April 16, 2007
- ↑ "1947: September - Formidable Jinnah is very dignified and very sad".Tripod.com "Pakistanspace" accessdate April 16, 2007
- ↑ 31.0 31.1 Gandhi, Patel: A Life, 444
- ↑ "1947: October - Jinnah wants the minorities to stay in Pakistan".Tripod.com "Pakistanspace" accessdate April 16, 2007
- ↑ "The Governor General: The Last Year: page 2".Government of Pakistan accessdate April 16, 2007
- ↑ "1947: December - Money matters". Tripod.com "Pakistanspace" accessdate April 16, 2007
- ↑ Ahmed: 194
- ↑ Ahmed: 77 but see also page 195 for a discussion about this issue
- ↑ Ahmed: 77
- ↑ Ahmed: 194
- ↑ Ahmed: xxii
- ↑ "Was Jinnah a Shi'a or a Sunni?," Rediff on the Web Was Jinnah a Shi'a or a Sunni? retrieved April 17, 2007
- ↑ Basit Ghafoor,"Dina Wadia Claims Jinnah House".Chowk.com. accessdate 16-04-2007
- ↑ Jinnah's Bombay house
- ↑ Gandhi, Patel: A Life, 435
- ↑ Gandhi, Patel: A Life, 435-436
- ↑ "Pakistan expresses shock over Advani's resignation as BJP chief". Hindustan Times Online edition. accessdate April 17, 2007
- ↑ "Interview with Christopher Lee".BBC "Wiltshire - Films & TV". accessdate April 17, 2007
- ↑ "Gandhi (1982)".Amazon.com Internet Movie Database accessdate April 17, 2007
- ↑ Ahmed: 10
- Ahmed, Akbar S. Jinnah, Pakistan, and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin NY: Routledge, 1997. ISBN 0415149665
- Ajeet, Javed. Secular and Nationalist Jinnah. New Delhi: Kitab Pub. House, 1997.
- Asiananda, Jinnah: A Corrective Reading of Indian History. NY: Open University Press, 2005. ISBN 8183050026
- Gandhi, Rajmohan. Patel: A Life. Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1990
- French, Patrick. Liberty or Death: India's Journey to Independence and Division. London: Flamingo, 1998. ISBN 9780006550457
- Hardiman, David. Peasant Nationalists of Gujarat. Oxford University Press, 1988. ISBN 0195612558
- Jalal, Ayesha. The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0521458501
- Jinnah, Fatima. My Brother. Karachi: Quaid-e-Azam Academy, 1987. ISBN 9694130360
- Mansergh, Nicholas, et al. The Transfer of Power 1942-47. London: H.M.S.O., 1982 ISBN 9780115800863
- Wolpert, Stanley. Jinnah of Pakistan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 9780195034127