Colleges and universities
- Shandong University (Jinan)
- Ocean University of China (Qingdao)
- University of Petroleum (Dongying)
CultureTai Shan, Shandong, China
Mandarin dialects are spoken throughout Shandong, and linguists classify these dialects into three broad categories: Ji Lu Mandarin spoken in the northwest (as well as in neighboring Hebei), Zhongyuan Mandarin spoken in the southwest (as well as in neighboring Henan), and Jiao Liao Mandarin spoken in the Shandong Peninsula (as well as the Liaodong Peninsula across the sea). When people refer to the "Shandong dialect" (山東話), they are generally referring to the first or the second, as the Jiao Liao dialects are commonly called the "Jiaodong dialect" (膠東話).
Shandong cuisine (鲁菜) is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. It can generally be divided into three types, the inland Shandong cuisine (for example, Jinan cuisine), the seafood-centered Jiaodong cuisine in the peninsula, and the Confucius's Mansion cuisine, an elaborate tradition of cooking that was originally intended for Imperial feasts and other important events.
Shandong Bangzi and Lüju are popular types of Chinese opera in Shandong, and both originated from the southwestern region of the province.
Shandong is the second most populous province of China after Henan, with a total population of almost 92 million. Over 99 percent of this large population is Han Chinese, although there are several minority groups including the Hui and the Manchus.
Professional sports teams based in Shandong include:
- Chinese Football Association Super League
- Shandong Luneng
- Qingdao Zhongneng
- Chinese Football Association Jia League
- Qingdao Hailifeng
- Chinese Basketball Association
- Shandong Jinsidun Lions
The Jingjiu Railway (connecting Beijing to Kowloon) and the Jinghu Railway (connecting Beijing to Shanghai) are both major railways that pass through the western part of Shandong. The Jingjiu passes through Liaocheng and Heze, while the Jinghu passes through Dezhou, Jinan, Tai'an, Qufu, and Tengzhou. The Jiaoji Railway is also an important railway of Shandong, linking its two largest cities, Jinan and Qingdao.Ferryboat crosses to Changshan islands.
Shandong has one of the highest quality expressway networks among all of the Chinese provinces. At over 3,000 km, the total length of Shandong's expressways is the highest among all the provinces. The Jiqing Expressway (which connects Jinan to Qingdao) and the Jingfu Expressway (which connects Beijing to Fuzhou, both pass through Shandong) and serve as important expressway links for the rest of the country.
The Shandong Peninsula with its many bays and harbors, has many important ports including Qingdao, Yantai, Weihai, Rizhao, and Longkou. Many of these ports have historical significance as well, as the sites of former foreign naval bases or historical battles. Ferries link the cities on the north coast of the peninsula with the Liaodong Peninsula, further north across the sea.
In terms of air travel, two of Shandong's most important airports include Jinan Yaoqiang Airport and Qingdao Liuting International Airport.
TourismMain stairway leading up to Mount Tai, Shandong Province, China
Shandong is a major tourist destination in China, with a variety of different sites to behold. The ruins of ancient Longshan, which is considered to be the earliest city in China, is one of the most important of these sites, along with Penglai, a town on the north of the Shandong peninsula which is well-known in Daoism.
Shandong is also blessed with beautiful landscapes, including the sacred Mount Taishan, Laoshan, which is a prominent center of Daoism, and the seaside of the Jiaodong peninsula. In 1987 and 1994, respectively, Mount Taishan, the Temple and Cemetery of Confucius, and the Confucius Mansion in Qufu were inscribed on the China World Cultural and Natural Heritage List by UNESCO, making them into internationally recognized sites.
Jinan, Shandong's provincial capital, is one of China's most famous historical and cultural cities. It has numerous natural springs, which provide it with its name, Spring City.
Shandong is also considered the birthplace of China's pottery, porcelain and silk. Throughout the province, tourists can find these as well as other traditional items like the clocks and watches of Yantai, the porcelain of Zibo, the kites of Weifang, and the shell-carving of Qingdao. Qingdao is also a beach resort city which is famous for its Tsingtao beer. Other famous sites in the province include: Qingzhou, an ancient trading and administrative center with some famous archaeological discoveries, and Weihai, a former British port city which was important during the second Sino-Japanese War.
Old pine tree near the Four-Gates Pagoda in Shandong Province, China.
Carved sculptures on the Thousand Buddha Cliff in Shandong Province, China.
Sun Yat-sen Monument on Taishan, Shandong, China.
sunrising on the Changshan islands sea area
- Elleman, Bruce A. 2002. Wilson and China a Revised History of the Shandong Question. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 9780765610508.
- Jing, Su, and Lun Luo. 1978. Landlord and Labor in Late Imperial China Case Studies from Shandong. Cambridge, Mass: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University. ISBN 9780674508668.
- Liu, Cary Y., Michael Nylan, Anthony J. Barbieri-Low, Naomi Noble Richard, Michael Loewe, and Susan L. Beningson. 2005. Recarving China's Past art, Archaeology, and Architecture of the "Wu Family Shrines." Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Art Museum. ISBN 9780300107975.
- Yang, Maochun. 1945. A Chinese village Taitou, Shantung Province. New York: Columbia University Press. OCLC 22514208.
Linyi | Rizhao | Tai'an | Weifang | Weihai | Yantai | Zaozhuang | Zibo