Other species

  • Homo floresiensis
  • Homo antecessor
  • Homo heidelbergensis
  • Homo neanderthalensis
  • Homo sapiens
    • Homo sapiens sapiens
  • Homo rhodesiensis
  • Homo cepranensis

The recent discovery of a fossil ascribed to a new species, Homo floresiensis, listed as 18,000 years ago, has raised the possibility that numerous descendant species of Homo erectus may have existed in the islands of southeast Asia that await fossil discovery. However, some scientists are skeptical about the claim that Homo floresiensis is a descendant of Homo erectus or that it is anything other than Homo sapiens. One theory holds that the fossils are from a modern human with microcephaly (disorder resulting in a smaller head), while another one claims that they are from a group of pygmys.

Individual fossils

Some of the major Homo erectus (or Homo ergaster in the case of those ancient fossils from Africa):

  • Indonesia (island of Java): Trinil 2 (holotype), Sangiran collection, Sambungmachan collection, Ngandong collection
  • China: Lantian (Gongwangling and Chenjiawo), Yunxian, Zhoukoudian, Nanjing, Hexian
  • India: Narmada (taxonomic status debated!)
  • Kenya: WT 15000 (Nariokotome), ER 3883, ER 3733
  • Tanzania: OH 9
  • Republic of Georgia: Dmanisi collection


  • Bower, B. 2003. Erectus ahoy: Prehistoric seafaring floats into view. Science News Online 164(16):248.
  • Kreger, C. D. 2005. Homo erectus: Introduction. Retrieved March 4, 2007.
  • Levy, S. 2006. Clashing with titans. BioScience 56(4): 295.
  • Mayr, E. 2001. What evolution is. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0465044255.
  • Novaresio, P. 1996. The Explorers. Stewart, Tabori & Chang. ISBN 155670495X.
  • Sawyer, G. J., and B. Maley. 2005. Neanderthal Reconstructed. Anat. Rec. (New Anat.) 283B: 23-31.
  • Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. 2007a. Homo erectus. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved March 4, 2007.
  • Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. 2007b. Homo ergaster. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved March 4, 2007.
  • Tattersall, I., and J. Schwartz. 2000. Extinct Humans. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 0813334829.