Volleyball is a globally recognized sport that found its origins in the United States of America. In fact, worldwide, volleyball is second on the “popular list,” only behind soccer. Play is started by a player on one side serving the ball over the net into the opponents' field or court. The opponents then, without allowing the ball to strike the floor, return it, and it is in this way kept going back and forth until one side fails to return it or it hits the floor. This counts a "score" for one side, or a "server out" for the other, depending on the side in point. The game consists of nine innings, each side serving a certain number of times, as per the rules, per inning.

The complete rules of volleyball are extensive, but in general, play proceeds as follows. Points are scored by grounding the ball on the opponents' court, or when the opponent commits a fault. The first team to reach 25 points wins the set and the first team to win three sets wins the match.1 Teams can contact the ball no more than three times before the ball crosses the net, and consecutive contacts must be made by different players. The ball is usually played with the hands or arms, but players can legally strike or push (short contact) the ball with any part of the body.

Through time, volleyball has developed to involve common volleyball techniques of spiking, passing, blocking, and setting, as well as specialized player positions and offensive and defensive structures. Because many plays are made above the top of the net, vertical jumping is an athletic skill emphasized in volleyball. This article focuses on competitive indoor volleyball, which is carefully regulated and played indoors. Numerous variations of volleyball have developed for casual play, as has the Olympic spin-off sport beach volleyball.

History of Volleyball

Origin of Volleyball

On February 9, 1895, in Holyoke, Massachusetts (USA), William G. Morgan, a YMCA physical education director, created a new game called Mintonette as a pastime to be played by any number of players and preferably indoors. The game took some of its characteristics from tennis and handball. At the same time, James A. Naismith's invention of basketball was also on the rise, having been brought into existence just ten miles (16 km) away in the city of Springfield, Massachusetts. Mintonette (as volleyball was then known) was designed to be an indoor sport less rough than basketball for older members of the YMCA, while still requiring a bit of athletic effort. The first rules, written down by William G. Morgan, called for a net 6 feet 6 inches (1.98 meters) high, a 25 × 50 foot (7.6 × 15.2 meter) court, and any number of players. A match was composed of nine innings with three serves for each team in each inning, and no limit to the number of ball contacts for each team before sending the ball to the opponents' court. In case of a serving error, a second try was allowed. Hitting the ball into the net was considered a foul (with loss of the point or a side-out)-except in the case of the first-try serve. To protect the fingers of the ladies, they were allowed to catch the ball and then throw it back into play.

In Mintonette, the serving of the ball back and forth was reminiscent to that of tennis volleys, and hence came the name, volleyball. After an observer, Alfred Halstead, noticed the volleying nature of the game at its first exhibition match in 1896, played at the Springfield YMCA, the game quickly became known as volleyball (it was originally spelled as two words: "volley ball"). Volleyball rules were slightly modified by the Springfield YMCA and the game spread around the country to other YMCA locations.

The first game was played on July 7, 1900, at Springfield College, and the game spread to Canada, the Orient, the Southern Hemisphere, and Cuba soon thereafter. In a mere seven years (1907), the sport was presented as one of the most popular sports in the Playground of America convention.

Volleyball on the Rise

  • 1913 At the end of this year, volleyball had spread its wings throughout the world and back, leavings its imprints in Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Brazil. Volleyball competitions became a part of the Far Eastern Games.
  • 1916-1919

In 1916, in the Philippines, an offensive style of passing the ball in a high trajectory to be struck by another player (the set and spike) were introduced. The Filipinos developed the "bomba" or kill, and called the hitter a "bomberino." 1916 - The NCAA was invited by the YMCA to aid in editing the rules and in promoting the sport. Volleyball was added to school and college physical education and intramural programs. The score was changed from 21 points to 15 in the following year. In 1919, American Expeditionary Forces distributed 16,000 volleyballs to their troops and allies: this provided a stimulus for the growth of volleyball outside the United States.

  • 1920s

Three hits per side and back row attack rules were instituted. In 1922, the first YMCA national championships were held in Brooklyn, New York; 27 teams from 11 states were represented. In 1928, when it became clear that tournaments and rules were needed, the United States Volleyball Association (USVBA, now USA Volleyball) was formed. The first U.S. Open was staged, as the field was open to non-YMCA squads

  • 1930s

In 1930, the first two-man beach game was played. In 1934, the approval and recognition of national volleyball referees. At the AAU convention in Boston, 1937, the U.S. Volleyball Association was recognized as the official national governing body in the U.S.

  • 1940s

Forearm pass introduced to the game (as a desperation play). Most balls were still played with the overhand pass in 1946. A study of recreation in the United States showed that volleyball ranked fifth among team sports being promoted and organized. An international federation, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), was founded in 1947, and the first World Championships were held in 1949 for men and 1952 for women. 1949 USVBA added a collegiate division, for competitive college teams. For the first ten years collegiate competition was sparse. Teams were formed only through the efforts of interested students and instructors. Many teams dissolved when the interested individuals left the college. Competitive teams were scattered, with no collegiate governing bodies providing leadership in the sport. The first country outside the United States to adopt volleyball was Canada in 1900. Volleyball was added to the program of the Olympic Games in 1964. The sport is now popular in Brazil, in Europe (where especially Italy, the Netherlands and countries from Eastern Europe have been major forces since the late 1980s), in Russia, and in other countries including China and the rest of Asia, as well in as the United States.

  • 1950s

In 1951, volleyball was played by over 50 million people each year in over 60 countries. Four years later, in 1955, even the Pan American games incorporated volleyball in their competitions. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) designated volleyball as an Olympic team sport in 1957, to be included in the 1964 Olympic Games. The International University Sports Federation (FISU) held the first University Games in Turin, Italy in 1959. Volleyball was one of the eight competitions held.

  • 1960s

In 1960, seven midwestern institutions formed the Midwest Intercollegiate Volleyball Association (MIVA), followed by the Southern California Intercollegiate Volleyball Association in 1964. In the 1960s new techniques added to the game included the soft spike (dink), forearm pass (bump), blocking across the net, and defensive diving and rolling. In 1964, Volleyball was introduced to the Olympic Games in Tokyo. The Japanese volleyball used in the 1964 Olympics, consisted of a rubber carcass with leather paneling. A similarly constructed ball is used in most modern competition. In 1965, the California Beach Volleyball Association (CBVA) was formed. Later, in 1968 National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) made volleyball their fifteenth competitive sport. At the end of the decade, in 1969, The Executive Committee of the NCAA proposed the addition of volleyball to its program.

  • 1970s

In 1974, the World Championships in Mexico were telecast in Japan. The next year, the US National Women's team began a year-round training regime in Pasadena, Texas, (moved to Colorado Springs in 1979, Coto de Caza and Fountain Valley, California, in 1980, and San Diego in 1985). In 1977, the US National Men's team began a year-round training regime in Dayton, Ohio, (moved to San Diego in 1981).

  • 1980s

In 1983, the Association of Volleyball Professionals (AVP) was formed. In 1984, the US won their first medals at the Olympics in Los Angeles. The Men won the Gold, and the Women the Silver. 1986 marked the formation of the Women's Professional Volleyball Association (WPVA) was formed. In 1987, the FIVB added a Beach Volleyball World Championship Series. In 1988, the US men's squad repeated the Gold in the Olympics in South Korea. In 1989, the FIVB Sports Aid Program was created.

  • 1990s

In 1990, the World League was created. Two years later, the Four Person Pro Beach League was started in the United States. In 1994, Volleyball World Wide was created. In 1995, Volleyball celebrated its one hundredth anniversary. In 1996, two-person beach volleyball was added to the Olympics.

Volleyball in the Olympics

The history of Olympic volleyball can be traced back to the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris, where volleyball was played as part of an American sports demonstration event.2 After the foundation of FIVB and some continental confederations, it was first considered for official inclusion. In 1957, a special tournament was held at the 53rd IOC session in Sofia, Bulgaria to support such request. The competition was a success, and the sport was officially included in the program for the 1964 Summer Olympics.

The Olympic volleyball tournament was originally a simple competition, whose format paralleled the one still employed in the World Cup: all teams played against each other team and then were ranked by wins, set average, and point average. One disadvantage of this round-robin system is that medal winners could be determined before the end of the games, making the audience lose interest in the outcome of the remaining matches. To cope with this situation, the competition was split into two phases with the addition of a "final round" elimination tournament consisting of quarterfinals, semifinals, and finals matches in 1972. The number of teams involved in the Olympic tournament has grown steadily since 1964. Since 1996, both men's and women's events count twelve participant nations. Each of the five continental volleyball confederations has at least one affiliated national federation involved in the Olympic Games.

The U.S.S.R. won men's gold in both 1964 and 1968. After taking bronze in 1964 and silver in 1968, Japan finally won the gold for men's volleyball in 1972. Women's gold went to Japan in 1964 and again in 1976. That year, the introduction of a new offensive skill, the back row attack, allowed Poland to win the men's competition over the Soviets in a very tight five-set match. Since the strongest teams in men's volleyball at the time belonged to the Eastern Bloc, the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics did not have as great an effect on these events as it had on the women's. The U.S.S.R. collected their third Olympic Gold Medal in men's volleyball with a 3-1 victory over Bulgaria (the Soviet women won that year as well, their third gold as well). With the U.S.S.R. boycotting the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles, the U.S. was able to sweep Brazil in the finals for the men's gold medal. Italy won its first medal (bronze in the men's competition) in 1984, foreshadowing a rise in prominence for their volleyball teams.

At the 1988 Games, Karch Kiraly and Steve Timmons led the U.S. men's team to a second straight gold medal. In 1992, underrated Brazil upset favorites C.I.S., Netherlands, and Italy in the men's competition for the country's first Olympic gold medal. Runner-up Netherlands, men's silver medalist in 1992, came back under team leaders Ron Zwerver and Olof van der Meulen in the 1996 Games for a five-set win over Italy. A men's bronze medalist in 1996, Serbia and Montenegro (playing in 1996 and 2000 as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) beat Russia in the gold medal match in 2000. In 2004, Brazil won its second men's volleyball gold medal beating Italy in the finals.

Volleyball Terminology

ACE - A serve that is not passable and results immediately in a point. ANTENNA - The vertical rods (normally white and red) mounted near the edges of the net. The antennas are mounted directly above the sidelines and are not-in-play. Antennas are not usually used on outdoor nets.

APPROACH - Fast stride toward the net by a spiker before he jumps in the air.

ASSIST - Passing or setting the ball to a teammate who attacks the ball for a kill. This stat is normally only logged for high school, college, and National/Olympic team play.

ATTACK - The offensive action of hitting the ball. The attempt by one team to terminate the play by hitting the ball to the floor on the opponent's side.

ATTACK BLOCK - Receiving players' aggressive attempt to block a spiked ball before it crosses the net.

ATTACK ERROR - An unsuccessful attack which does one of the following: 1) the ball lands out of bounds, 2) the ball goes into the net and terminates play or goes into the net on the third hit, 3) the ball is blocked by the opposition for a point or sideout, 4) the attacker is called for a center line violation, or 5) the attacker is called for illegal contact (lift, double hit… ) on the attack.

ATTACKER - Also "hitter" or "spiker." A player who attempts to hit a ball offensively with the purpose of terminating play in his or her team's favor.

ATTACK LINE - A line 3m from the net that separates the front row players from the back row players. Commonly referred to as the "10-foot line."

BACKCOURT - The area from the endline to the attack line.

BACK SET - A set delivered behind the setter's back, which is subsequently hit by an attacker.

BACK ROW ATTACK - When a back row player attacks the ball by jumping from behind the 3m line before hitting the ball. If the back row player steps on or past the 3m line during take-off, the attack is illegal.

BEACH DIG - An open hand receive of the ball, also called a "Deep Dish"

BLOCK - A defensive play by one or more players meant to deflect a spiked ball back to the hitter's court. It may be a combination of one, two or three players jumping in front of the opposing spiker and contacting the spiked ball with the hands.

BUMP - a common term for forearm passing.

BALL HANDLING ERROR - Any time the official calls a double hit, a thrown ball or a lift (except on a serve reception or attack). For our purposes, this category also includes any blocking errors (when an official calls a blocker for a violation such as going into the net, centerline violation, reaching over the net, etc.).

BUMP PASS - The use of joined forearms to pass or set a ball in an underhand manner.

CAMPFIRE - A ball that falls to the floor in an area that's surrounded by two, three, four or more players. At the instant after the ball hits the floor, it appears as if the players are encircling and staring at a campfire.

CENTER LINE - The boundary that runs directly under the net and divides the court into two equal halves.

CLOSING THE BLOCK - The responsibility of the assisting blocker(s) to join the primary blocker and create an impenetrable block in which a ball cannot fit between the two individual blockers.

CROSS COURT SHOT - An individual attack directed at an angle from one end of the offensive team's side of the net to the opposite sideline of the defensive team's court.

CUT SHOT - A spike from the hitter's strong side that travels at a sharp angle across the net.

DECOY - An offensive play meant to disguise the spiker who will receive the set.

DEEP SET - Set to be hit away from the net to confuse or disrupt the timing of the blockers.

DIG - Passing a spiked or rapidly hit ball. Slang for the art of passing an attacked ball close to the floor.

DINK - A legal push of the ball around or over blockers.

DOUBLE BLOCK - Two players working in unison to deflect an attacked ball at the net back to the hitter's side.

DOUBLE HIT - Successive hits or contacts by the same player. (Illegal)

DOUBLE QUICK - Two hitters approaching the setter for a quick inside hit.

DOUBLES - A game with two players on each side, most commonly played on a sand court.

DOWN BALL - A ball the blockers elect not to attempt to block because it has been set too far from the net or the hitter is not under control. A "Down Ball" is hit overhand and driven over the net with topspin while the player remains standing. "Down Ball," is usually called aloud by the defense when it becomes apparent the attacker has no chance of hitting a powerful spike.

FIVE-ONE - A 6-player offensive system that uses five hitters and one setter.

FIVE SET - A back set to the right front hitter.

FLARE - Inside-out path of an outside spiker who hid behind a quick hitter.

FLOATER - A serve which does not spin or rotate and therefore moves in an erratic path. This is similar to a "knuckle ball" pitch in baseball.

FOREARM PASS - Join your arms from the elbows to the wrists and strike the ball with the fleshy part of your forearms in an underhand motion.

FOUL - A violation of the rules.

FOUR SET - A set 1' from the sideline, and 1' to 2' above the net.

FOUR-TWO - A 6-player offensive system using four hitters and two setters.

FREE BALL - A ball that will be returned by a pass rather than a spike. This is usually called aloud by the defense instructing players to move into serve receive positions.

HELD BALL - A ball that comes to rest during contact resulting in a foul.

HIT - To jump and strike the ball with an overhand, forceful shot.

HITTER - Also "spiker" or "attacker"

HITTING PERCENTAGE - kills vs. attempts

INSIDE SHOOT - A playset or a 33.

ISOLATION PLAY - Designed to isolate the attacker on a specific defender, normally to exploit a weakness or give a hitter a chance to hit against a single block.

JUNGLE BALL - Any volleyball game with people who don't really know how to play volleyball. A common euphemism for this type of game is "Picnic Volleyball."

JUMP SERVE - A serve that is started by the server tossing the ball into the air and jumping into and hitting the ball in its downward motion.

JOUST - When 2 opposing players are simultaneously attempting to play a ball above the net.

KEY - To predict a team's next play by observation of patterns or habits.

KILL - An attack that results in an immediate point or side out.

LINE - The marks that serve as boundaries of a court.

LINE SHOT - A ball spiked down an opponent's sideline, closest to the hitter and outside the block.

MIDDLE-BACK - A defensive system that uses the middle back player to cover deep spikes.

MIDDLE-UP - A defensive system that uses the middle back player to cover dinks or short shots.

MINTONETTE - The original name of the game of volleyball, created by William Morgan.

MULTIPLE OFFENSE - A system of play using different types of sets other than just normal outside sets.

OFFSIDE BLOCK - Player at the net, which is on the side away from the opponent's attack.

OFF-SPEED HIT - Any ball spiked with less than maximum force but with spin.

OUTSIDE HITTER - a left-front or right-front attacker normally taking an approach which starts from outside the court

OVERHAND PASS - A pass executed with both hands open, controlled by the fingers and thumbs, played just above the forehead.

OVERHAND SERVE - Serving the ball and striking it with the hand above the shoulder.

OVERLAP - refers to the positions of the players in the rotation prior to the contact of the ball when serving.

PANCAKE - A one-handed defensive technique where the hand is extended and the palm is slid along the floor as the player dives or extension rolls, and timed so that the ball bounces off the back of the hand.

PASS - see "Forearm Pass"

PENETRATION - The act of reaching across and breaking the plane of the net during blocking.

POINT OF SERVICE - A serve that results in a point (an ace by NCAA standards) as the serve is not returnable due to a bad pass by the receiver, this number includes aces.

POWER ALLEY - A cross-court hit traveling away from the spiker to the farthest point of the court.

POWER TIP - A ball that is pushed or directed with force by an attacking team.

POWER VOLLEYBALL - A competitive style of volleyball started by the Japanese.

QUICK - a player approaching the setter for a quick inside hit

QUICK SET - a set (usually 2' above the net) in which the hitter is approaching the setter, and may even be in the air, before the setter delivers the ball. This type of set requires precise timing between the setter and hitter.

READY POSITION - The flexed, yet comfortable, posture a player assumes before moving to contact the ball.

RECEPTION ERROR - A serve that a player should have been able to return, but results in an ace (and only in the case of an ace). If it is a "husband/wife" play (where the ball splits the two receivers), the receiving team is given the reception error instead of an individual.

RED CARD - a severe penalty in which an official displays a red card. The result of a red card may be a player is disqualified, the team loses the serve, or the team loses a point. A red card may be given with or without a prior yellow card as a warning; it is up to the official's discretion.

ROOF - A ball that when spiked is blocked by a defensive player such that the ball deflects straight to the floor on the attacker's side.

ROTATION - The clockwise movement of players around the court and through the serving position following a side out.

SERVE - One of the six basic skills; used to put the ball into play. It is the only skill controlled exclusively by one player.

SERVER - The player who puts the ball into play.

SERVICE ERROR - An unsuccessful serve in which one or more of the following occurs: 1) the ball hits the net or fails to clear the net, 2) the ball lands out of bounds, or 3) the server commits a foot fault.

SERVICE WINNER - A point the serving team scores when this player has served the ball. The point can be an immediate (in the case of an ace) or delayed (a kill or opponent attack error after a long rally). Therefore, the sum of the team's service winners equals their score.

SET - The tactical skill in which a ball is directed to a point where a player can spike it into the opponent's court.

SETTER - the player who has the 2nd of 3 contacts of the ball who "sets" the ball with an "Overhand Pass" for a teammate to hit. The setter normally runs the offense.

SIDE OUT - Occurs when the receiving team successfully puts the ball away against the serving team, or when the serving team commits an unforced error, and the receiving team thus gains the right to serve.

SIX PACK - Occurs when a blocker gets hit in the head or face by a spiked ball.

SIX-TWO - A 6-player offense using 2 setters opposite one another in the rotation. Setter 1 becomes a hitter upon rotating into the front row as setter 2 rotates into the back row and becomes the setter.

SPIKE - Also hit or attack. A ball contacted with force by a player on the offensive team who intends to terminate the ball on the opponent's floor or off the opponent's blocker.

STRONG SIDE - When a right-handed hitter is hitting from the left-front position or when a left-handed hitter is hitting from the right-front position.

STUFF - A ball that is deflected back to the attacking team's floor by the opponent's blockers. A slang term for "block."

TURNING IN - the act of an outside blocker turning his/her body into the court so as to ensure the blocked ball is deflected into the court and lands in-bounds.

UNDERHAND SERVE - a serve in which the ball is given a slight under-hand toss from about waist high and then struck with the opposite closed fist in an "underhand pitching" motion.

WEAK SIDE - When a right-handed player is hitting from right-front position or when a left-handed player is hitting from the left-front position.

WIPE - when a hitter pushes the ball off of the opposing block so it lands out of bounds

YELLOW CARD - a warning from an official indicated by the display of a yellow card. Any player or coach who receives two yellow cards in a match is disqualified. A single yellow card does not result in loss of point or serve.

Rules of the game

Volleyball court

The court

The game is played on a volleyball court 18 meters long and 9 meters wide, divided into two 9 x 9 meter halves by a one-meter wide net placed so that the top of the net is 2.43 meters above the center of the court for men's competition, and 2.24 meters for women's competition (these heights are varied for veterans and junior competitions).

There is a line 3 meters from and parallel to the net in each team court which is considered the "attack line." This "3 meter" (or 10 foot) line divides the court into "back row" and "front row" areas. These are in turn divided into 3 areas each: these are numbered as follows, starting from area "1," which is the position of the serving player:

After a team gains the serve (also known as siding out), its members must rotate in a clockwise direction, with the player previously in area "2" moving to area "1" and so on, with the player from area "1" moving to area "6" (see also the Errors and faults section).

The team courts are surrounded by an area called the free zone which is a minimum of 3 meters wide and which the players may enter and play within after the service of the ball.3 All lines denoting the boundaries of the team court and the attack zone are drawn or painted within the dimensions of the area and are therefore a part of the court or zone. If a ball comes in contact with the line, the ball is considered to be "in." An antenna is placed on each side of the net perpendicular to the sideline and is a vertical extension of the side boundary of the court. A ball passing over the net must pass completely between the antennae (or their theoretical extensions to the ceiling) without contacting them.

The ball

The volleyball is made of leather or synthetic leather and inflated with compressed air. It is round and 65-67 cm in circumference. Its weight is 260-280 g. Its inside pressure should be 0.30 to 0.325 kg/cm2 (4.26 to 4.61 psi) (294.3 to 318.82 mbar or hPa).4

Game play

Each team consists of six players. To get play started, a team is chosen to serve by coin toss. A player from the serving team (the server) throws the ball into the air and attempts to hit the ball so it passes over the net on a course such that it will land in the opposing team's court (the serve). The opposing team must use a combination of no more than three contacts with the volleyball to return the ball to the opponent's side of the net. These contacts usually consist first of the bump or pass so that the ball's trajectory is aimed towards the player designated as the setter; second of the set (usually an over-hand pass using wrists to push finger-tips at the ball) by the setter so that the ball's trajectory is aimed towards a spot where one of the players designated as an attacker can hit it, and third by the attacker who spikes (jumping, raising one arm above the head and hitting the ball so it will move quickly down to the ground on the opponent's court) to return the ball over the net. The team with possession of the ball that is trying to attack the ball as described is said to be on offense. The team on defense attempts to prevent the attacker from directing the ball into their court: players at the net jump and reach above the top (and if possible, across the plane) of the net in order to block the attacked ball. If the ball is hit around, above, or through the block, the defensive players arranged in the rest of the court attempt to control the ball with a dig (usually a fore-arm pass of a hard-driven ball). After a successful dig, the team transitions to offense.

The game continues in this manner, rallying back and forth, until the ball touches the court within the boundaries or until an error is made.

Errors and faults

  • The ball lands out of the court, in the same court as the team that touched it last, under the net to the opposing team's court, or the ball touches the net "antennas." The ball also may not pass over or outside the antennas even if it lands in the opponents' court1.
  • The ball is touched more than three times before being returned to the other team's court2.
  • The same player touches the ball twice in succession3.
  • A player "lifts" or "carries" the ball (the ball remains in contact with the player's body for too long).
  • A player touches the net with any part of his or her body or clothing while making a play on the ball (with the exception of the hair).
  • The players of one team do not manage to touch the ball before the ball lands in their half of the court.
  • A back-row player spikes the ball while it is completely above the top of the net, unless he or she jumped from behind the attack line (the player is, however, allowed to land in front of the attack line).
  • A back-row player participates in a completed block of the opposing team's attack (completed means at least one blocker touched the ball).
  • The libero, a defensive player who can only play in the back row, attempts a block or makes an "attacking hit," defined as any shot struck while the ball is entirely above the top of the net.
  • A player completes an attack hit from higher than the top of the net when the ball is coming from an overhand finger pass (set) by a libero in the front zone.
  • A player is not in the correct position at the moment of serve, or serves out of turn. This type of foul is related to the position currently occupied by the players (see the table in the Equipment section). When ball is served, players can place themselves freely on the field (e.g. a "back-row" player can be close to the net) so long as they obey the following rules: The area "1" player must be behind the area "2" player and to the right of the area "6" player. The area "6" player must be behind area "3" player, to the left of area "1" player and to the right of area "5." The area "5" player must be behind the area "4" player and to the left of the area "6" player. Symmetric rules must be respected by the front-row players (those in areas "2," "3" and "4").
  • When hitting, a player makes contact with the ball in the space above the opponent's court (in blocking an attack hit, this is allowed).
  • A player touches the opponent's court with any part of his or her body except the feet or hands4.
  • When serving, a player steps on the court or the end line before making contact with the ball.
  • A player takes more than 8 seconds to serve.
  • At the moment of serve, one or more players jump, raise their arms or stand together at the net in an attempt to block the sight