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Dutch East India Company

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The raising of capital in Rotterdam did not go so smoothly. A considerable part originated from inhabitants of Dordrecht. Although it did not raise as much capital as Amsterdam or Zeeland, Enkhuizen had the largest input in the share capital of the VOC. Under the first 358 shareholders, there were many small entrepreneurs, who dared to take the risk.

Among the early shareholders of the VOC, immigrants played an important role. Under the 1,143 tenderers were 39 Germans and no fewer than 301 Zuid-Nederlanders (roughly present Belgium and Luxemburg, then under Habsburg rule), of whom Isaäc le Maire was the largest subscriber with ƒ85,000. VOC's total capitalization was ten times that of its British rival.

The logo of the Amsterdam Chamber of the VOC.

The logo of the VOC consisted of a large capital 'V' with an O on the left and a C on the right leg. The first letter of the hometown of the chamber conducting the operation was placed on top (see figure for example of the Amsterdam chamber logo). The flag of the company was orange, white, blue (see Dutch flag) with the company logo embroidered on it.

The Heeren XVII (Lords Seventeen) met alternately six years in Amsterdam and two years in Middelburg. They defined the VOC's general policy and divided the tasks among the Chambers. The Chambers carried out all the necessary work, built their own ships and warehouses and traded the merchandise. The Heeren XVII sent the ships' masters off with extensive instructions on the route to be navigated, prevailing winds, currents, shoals and landmarks. The VOC also produced its own charts.

In the context of the Dutch-Portuguese War the company established its headquarters in Batavia, Java (now Jakarta, Indonesia). Other colonial outposts were also established in the East Indies, such as on the Spice Islands (Moluccas), which include the Banda Islands, where the VOC forcibly maintained a monopoly over nutmeg and mace. Methods used to maintain the monopoly included the violent suppression of the native population, not stopping short of extortion and mass murder.

Notable VOC ships

Replicas have been constructed of several VOC ships, marked with an (R)VOC Amsterdam replicates the three-masted, full-rigged VOC vessel which was launched in 1748 and sunk in 1749.A modern reconstruction of the 18th century VOC Amsterdam is permanently anchored in the harbor at the Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum (the National Maritime Museum) in Amsterdam.
  • Amsterdam (R)
  • Arnhem
  • Batavia (R)
  • Braek
  • Duyfken ("Little Dove") (R)
  • Eendracht (1615) ("Unity")
  • Galias
  • Grooten Broeck ("Great Brook")
  • Gulden Zeepaert ("Golden Seahorse")
  • Halve Maen ("Half moon") (R)
  • Heemskerck
  • Hollandia
  • Klein Amsterdam ("Small Amsterdam")
  • Leeuwerik ("Lark")
  • Leyden
  • Limmen
  • Pera
  • Prins Willem (R)
  • Ridderschap van Holland ("Knighthood of Holland")
  • Rooswijk
  • Sardam
  • Texel
  • Utrecht
  • Vergulde Draeck ("Gilded Dragon")
  • Vianen
  • Vliegende Hollander ("Flying Dutchman")
  • Vliegende Swaan ("Flying Swan")
  • Wapen van Hoorn ("Arms of Hoorn")
  • Wezel ("Weasel")
  • Zeehaen ("Sea Cock")
  • Zeemeeuw ("Seagull")
  • Zuytdorp ("South Village")

Gallery: VOC multi-national outposts

  • VOC logo on Dutch flag

  • VOC logo in Tainan Old Fort of Anping, Taiwan

  • VOC logo in Cape Town Castle or Castle of Good Hope (c. 1680), South Africa

  • VOC logo on cannon at Dejima in Nagasaki harbour, Japan (1764)

  • VOC logo on fragment of broken dinnerware

Notes

  1. ↑ M. C. Rickles, A History of Modern Indonesia Since C. 1300. (Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 1993. ISBN 9780804721950)
  2. ↑ M. C. Rickles, A History of Modern Indonesia Since C. 1300. (Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 1993. ISBN 9780804721950), 6.
  3. ↑ M. C. Rickles, A History of Modern Indonesia Since C. 1300. (Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 1993. ISBN 9780804721950), 27.
  4. ↑ M. C. Rickles, A History of Modern Indonesia Since C. 1300. (Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 1993. ISBN 9780804721950), 28.
  5. ↑ M. C. Rickles, A History of Modern Indonesia Since C. 1300. (Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 1993. ISBN 9780804721950), 28.
  6. ↑ George Miller, To the Spice Islands and Beyond Travels in Eastern Indonesia. (Oxford in Asia paperbacks. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1996. ISBN 9789676530998)
  7. ↑ M. C. Rickles, A History of Modern Indonesia Since C. 1300. (Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 1993. ISBN 9780804721950), 110.

References

  • Boxer, C. R. The Dutch Seaborne Empire, 1600-1800. Pelican books. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973. ISBN 9780140216004
  • Gaastra, Femme S. The Dutch East India Company Expansion and Decline. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 2003. ISBN 9789057302411
  • Liu, Yong. The Dutch East India Company's Tea Trade with China, 1757-1781. TANAP monographs on the history of the Asian-European interaction, v. 6. Leiden: Brill, 2007. ISBN 9789004155992

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