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Kannada literature He patronized Kannada poets Mallanarya who wrote Veerasaivamrita, Bhavachintaratna, and Satyendra Cholakathe, Chatu Vittalanatha who wrote Bhagavatha, and Timmanna Kavi who wrote a eulogy of his king in Krishnaraya Bharata.9 Vyasatirtha, the great saint from Mysore belonging to the Madhwa order of Udupi had been his Rajguru who wrote many songs in praise of his devoted king. Krishnadevarayana Dinachari in Kannada represents a recently discovered work. The record highlights the contemporary society during Krishnadevaraya's time in his personal diary, although some question if the king wrote the diary.

Tamil literature

Recently excavated Vishnu temple, Hampi

Krishnadevaraya patronized Tamil poet Haridasa 10

Sanskrit literature In Sanskrit, Vyasatirtha wrote Bhedojjivana, Tatparyachandrika, Nyayamrita (a work directed against Advaita philosophy), and Tarkatandava. Krishnadevaraya, an accomplished scholar, wrote Madalasa Charita, Satyavadu Parinaya, and Rasamanjari and Jambavati Kalyana.11

Telugu literature Krishnadevarayalu's ("Desa bhashalandu Telugu Lessa") reign marked the golden age of Telugu literature. Eight poets known as Astadiggajalu (eight elephants in the eight cardinal points) formed part of his court (known as Bhuvanavijayamu). According to the Vaishnavite religion, eight elephants stand in the eight corners of space, holding the earth in its place. Similarly, those eight poets constitute the eight pillars of his literary assembly. The membership of the Ashtadiggajas remains uncertain, although they may include the following: Allasani Peddana, Nandi Thimmana, Madayyagari Mallana, Dhurjati, Ayyalaraju Ramabhadrudu, Pingali Surana, Ramarajabhushanudu, and Tenali Ramakrishnudu.

Among those eight poets Allasani Peddana stood as the greatest, given the title of Andhra Kavita Pitamaha (the father of Telugu poetry). Manucharitramu stands as his most popular prabhanda work. Nandi Timmana wrote Parijataapaharanamu. Madayyagari Mallana wrote Rajasekhara Charitramu. Dhurjati wrote Kalahasti Mahatyamu and Ayyalraju Ramabhadrudu wrote Ramaabhyudayamu. Pingali Surana wrote the still remarkable Raghavapandaveeyamu, a dual work with double meaning built into the text, describing both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Battumurty alias Ramarajabhushanudu wrote Kavyalankarasangrahamu, Vasucharitramu, and Harischandranalopakhyanamu.

Among those works the last one embodies a dual work which tells simultaneously the story of King Harishchandra and Nala and Damayanti. Tenali Ramakrishna first wrote Udbhataradhya Charitramu, a Shaivite work and later wrote Vaishnava devotional texts Panduranga Mahatmyamu, and Ghatikachala Mahatmyamu. The period of the empire has become known as “Prabandha Period,” because of the quality of the prabandha literature produced during that time. Tenali Rama remains one of the most popular folk figures in India today, a quick-witted courtier ready even to outwit the all-powerful emperor.


Vitthala temple with musical pillars, Hoysala style multigonal base Hampi

Sri Krishnadevaraya wrote the Amuktamalyada in Telugu, in which he beautifully describes the pangs of separation suffered by Andal (one of the twelve bhakti era alwars) for her lover Lord Vishnu. He describes Andal's physical beauty in thirty verses; using descriptions of the spring and the monsoon as metaphors. As elsewhere in Indian poetry (for example, Sringara) the sensual pleasure of union extends beyond the physical level and becomes a path to, and a metaphor for, spirituality and ultimate union with the divine.

Periyalwar, the father of Andal, plays one of the main characters. Lord Vishnu commands Periyalwar to teach a king of the Pandya dynasty the path of knowledge to moksha. Amuktamalyada, also known by the name Vishnuchitteeyam, refers to Vishnuchittudu, the telugu name of Periyalwar. In the course of the main story of Godadevi in Amuktamalyada, the telugu name of Andal appears throughout. Krishnarayalu proved well-versed in Sanskrit, Tamil and Kannada. Jambavati Kalyanamu is his Sanskrit work.12 He strove for the welfare and the enlightenment of Telugu people.

Religion and culture

Krishna Deva Raya respected all forms of Hinduism, although he personally leaned in favor of Sri Vaishnavism,13 as evident in his literary tomes. He lavished on the Tirupati temple numerous objects of priceless value, ranging from diamond studded crowns to golden swords. Additionally, he commissioned statutes of himself and his two wives at the temple complex. Panchamatha Bhanjanam Tathacharya, the Rajaguru, formally initiated Krishnadevaraya into the Sri Vaishnava Sampradaya.14 He patronized Vyasatirtha and other Vedanta scholars.15 He patronized poets and scholars in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, and Sanskrit.

Preceded by:
Viranarasimha RayaVijayanagara empire
1509 -1529Succeeded by:
Achyuta Deva Raya

See also

  • Vijayanagara Empire
  • Vyasatirtha
  • Political history of medieval Karnataka
  • Vijayanagara architecture
  • Telugu


  1. ↑ Vepachedu.org, Golden Era of Telugu Literature. Retrieved September 14, 2008.
  2. ↑ K.A.N. Sastri, History of South India, From Prehistoric Times to Fall of Vijayanagar (1955), pp 250, 258.
  3. ↑ K.A.N. Sastri, History of South India, From Prehistoric Times to Fall of Vijayanagar (1955), p. 251.
  4. ↑ K. C. Vyas, D. R. SarDesai, and S. R. Nayak, India Through the Ages (Bombay: Allied Publishers, 1960), p. 140.
  5. ↑ Domingos Paes, Fernão Nunes, and Robert Sewell, A Forgotten Empire: Vijayanagar: A Contribution to the History of India: "Chronica dos reis de Bisnaga" (Teddington: Echo Library, 2006), p. 258.
  6. ↑ Ishwari Prasad, A Short History of Muslim Rule in India: From the Advent of Islam to the Death of Aurangzeb (Allahabad: Indian Press, 1982), p. 204.
  7. ↑ John Keay, India: A History (London: HarperCollins, 2001), p. 304.
  8. ↑ Duarte Barbosa, Mansel Longworth Dames, and Fernão de Magalhães, The Book of Duarte Barbosa: An Account of the Countries Bordering on the Indian Ocean and Their Inhabitants (New Delhi: Asian Educational Services), p. 202.
  9. ↑ S.U. Kamat, Concise History of Karnataka, p 157-189.
  10. ↑ S.U. Kamat, Concise History of Karnataka, p 157-189.
  11. ↑ S.U. Kamat, Concise History of Karnataka, p. 157-189.
  12. Amukutamalyada 1-13, 15.
  13. ↑ Vernon L. B Mendis, Currents of Asian History (Colombo: Lake House Investments, 1981), p. 455.
  14. ↑ Family Treemaker, Article by U Vaidyanathan. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
  15. ↑ Narahari S. Pujar, Shrisha Rao and H.P. Raghunandan, Haridasas of Karnataka. Retrieved July 22, 2008.


  • Barbosa, Duarte, Mansel Longworth Dames, and Fernão de Magalhães. 1989. The Book of Duarte Barbosa: An Account of the Countries Bordering on the Indian Ocean and Their Inhabitants. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 9788120604513.
  • Kāmat, Sūryanātha. A Concise History of Karnataka: From Pre-Historic Times to the Present. Bangalore: Archana Prakashana, 1980. OCLC 7796041.
  • Keay, John. 2001. India: A History. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 9780006387848.
  • Mendis, Vernon L. B. 1981. Currents of Asian History. Colombo: Lake House Investments. OCLC 9282773.
  • Nilakanta Sastri, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah. 1999. A History of South India from Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 9780195606867.
  • Paes, Domingos, Fernão Nunes, and Robert Sewell. 2006. A Forgotten Empire: Vijayanagar: A Contribution to the History of India: "Chronica dos reis de Bisnaga." Teddington: Echo Library. ISBN 9781406804607.
  • Prasad, Ishwari. 1982. A Short History of Muslim Rule in India: From the Advent of Islam to the Death of Aurangzeb. Allahabad: Indian Press. OCLC 17490615.
  • Smith, Vincent A., and Percival Spear. The Oxford History of India. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1981. OCLC 59176588.
  • Vyas, K. C., D. R. SarDesai, and S. R. Nayak. 1960. India through the ages. Bombay: Allied Publishers. OCLC 15202267.

External links

All links retrieved April 25, 2018.

  • The Golden Era of Telugu Literature from the Vepachedu Educational Foundation.
  • Hampi - History and Tourism.